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Migration Theories 

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When human moves from one place to another with the aims of setting up a temporary or permanent settlement points describes migration. The movement begun a long time ago and hence still taking place in our current societies. These movements from one place to another are caused by some factors which originate within or outside the societies individual lives. A good example of migration is one experienced by Latin Americans.
An increase in the number of migrants to and fro contributes a lot to the people's welfare in that society. The implication of this statement, however, depends upon the factors causing movement of people (In Acosta & In Wiesbrock, 2015). For instance, migration of people from one country to another in search of a job may render the natives jobless or strain for services among many others. On the other hand, this effect may render their homeland in a deficit of professionals if the number is too large. Understanding of some of these can be done through critical analysis of some migration theories.
Questions
In this paper, the following questions will be used to enhance a deeper understanding of migration. Some of these questions include:
a) Are their theories that can help us understand migration of people to and fro a place?
b) Can migration be caused by internal factors?
c) Can migration of people be caused by external factors?
d) Can the theories used to describe migration predict people’s future migration trends?
e) Can migration of people affect a nation in terms of manpower supply?
Objectives
This term paper is laid upon objectives which have to be determined at the end of the course study. The objectives include:
a) To establish the meaning of migration theory in relation to Latin America.
b) To establish the relationship between migration and conflict theory of migration.
c) To find out realism within environmental and conflict theories of migration
d) To examine how gender and feminism theory establishes people’s migration and settlement.
e) To discover the effects of economy stability using neoclassical theories of migration.
f) To evaluate the extent of social network and world system theories on migration of people.
Thesis statement
The paper will discuss some migration theories. An explanation of various situations may be applied by using the theories so as to enhance a deeper understanding of the topic.
Migration Theories
Migration theories are set of ideas that are used to give an explanation about the migration of people and animals from one place to another. By use of migration theories, facts about Latino migration, their contribution, and negative effects can be described then evaluated. In such a case, the approach uses the precise figures on the ground to discuss the current as well as forecasting the effects of Latin America's migration.
Migration theories play an imperative role in mainstreaming the various factors, behavior, and mode of conduct of migrants. In this case, the migrant use historical perspectives stated in theories to determine their establishments into and out of the various new settlement areas. Again, the theories give a brief forecast of settling in given areas. As an individual migrant, one can incorporate some of these ideas to determine their future stay in such new settlement areas.
Besides, migration theories impart researchers with a wide knowledge about migration trends. Through this, they can further their studies by trying to evaluate the various postulates of some theories to determine cause and effects of some human suffering as a result of migration. More so, the relationship between the current migration activities, trends, and possible procedures and techniques of migrations that took place. Any relationship between the current migration technique and the tradition can be done (In Acosta & In Wiesbrock, 2015).
Lastly, migration of individuals is believed to have an effect on the economic status of a nation. Immigration of people affects the GDP of a country. The fact is analyzed in the theoretical model of economic growth which tries to evaluate the effect of migration on economic growth using migration theories.
Conflict theory of migration
According to this theory, the consideration of a rivalry societies is taken into account. In the scenario, we say that the two community of people are at different classes and operate like enemies to each other. As per the theory, we term the two classes the capitalists (also known as bourgeoisie) and exploited workers. The theory was put forward by Carl Marx and tries to argue that the capitalist is equipped with a majority of the resources thus the main team players in the market. They are the owners of major resources such as factories and land and take advantage of low-level society individuals for work. He continues with an argument that the fear of exploitation of the proletariat from the capitalists causes some tensions within the society. The tension caused in the society by these people makes them cause a revolution against exploitations and finally acting as a course for human change in our today’s world (Trymaine, 2011).
How did this theory apply to Latin America in the United States? His argument bases on how Americans used the low classes individuals as a means of cheap labor. They did so to benefit their agricultural sector and at the end signing agreements that forced them to receive the minimum wage levels from the capitalists. The extension of this goes further to the payment of wages.
A good example of this scenario was evidenced when tough new immigration rules were put in place by Alabama. In the process of imposing the tough immigration rules in America, laborer shortage became widespread as an alternative laborers being American unemployed and prisoners. The results were that they also needed much to pay them unlike if they were paying the migrant laborers (Ken, 2011).
The perspectives of conflict theory on migration leave a discussion point on illegal immigration. On the other hand, exploitation of immigrants by Americans, consumers, and farmers in all sorts of life in America. Further conflict seems to arise when migrant workers seem to be exploited more through smuggling as this is mostly facilitated by those Americans believed to be on the right.
Group entitlement conflict theory also plays a role in determining the movement of people. In this case, a negative attitude is developed by a certain group of people towards another. In turn, the group may decide to settle in a new place to avoid the conflict of interest and negative attitude imposed on them. A good example is those families or clans considered witch by another clan or group of people (In Acosta & In Wiesbrock, 2015).
Environmental and ethnic conflict theories
Environmental theory, on the other hand, tries to analyze the deprivation factors within the environment and how they lead to the movement of people from one place to another. The presence of a harsh environmental condition has largely affected the movement of individuals. These may arise from different environmental situation ranging from political, social and economic stabilities of the place. Political instability may impact society in some ways creating a movement shift. Civil wars within a nation may produce a change leading to movement of people from one nation to another as refugees (Trymaine, 2011). A good example of this scenario has been experienced in many African countries such as Burundi and Southern Sudan.
On the other hand, an economic strain may cause a move for people to another place of settlement. In this case, people may prefer to move to settle in placed that are economically stable so as to be able to sustain their lives.
Social factors can also keep individuals from moving from one place to settle in another. An implication of this comes out clearly when the person feels socially unfit and uncomfortable to settle in his/her current place. In turn, the individual migrates to a new location for a social security reasons (Ken, 2011).
Gender and Feminism Theories
Migration of people in different societies has also been influenced by gender, feminism and masculinity in people. In this case, a specific gender according to a given society is considered superior to the other one or is assigned certain roles. The roles naturally assigned to a specific gender may force the individual to migrate in the process of fulfilling his/her promises, roles or self-actualization in this society (Barbara, 2016).
Many societies consider the male gender as the head of the family. Through this, men are naturally assigned a role of facilitating provision of human basic human needs to his family members. Such needs include food, clothing, shelter, security and even basic education. Men will consider migrating away from their homes in search of employment opportunities to be in a position to cater for basic family needs.
Earlier on, males were found to be stronger that women. The male gender was thus considered as a paramount source of labor. Due to this, many families lost their husbands and male children due to the slave trade. The men were transported to other countries where free labor was in high demand.
Neoclassical theories
The theory tries to relate income distribution control to natural forces and law. The theory establishes the association of neoliberals' political policies and ant associated Marxian exploitation and promotion notions. The theory tries to justify the fairness of the concept for a social resource being produced by market exchanges.
However, the theoretical psychological part of the theory creates dominance in various economic disciplines. The human decision making plays an imperative role here to determine the economic and migration status of society. Pleasures within individuals are the determining factor of movement within a society according to the theory. The coordination of utility and the utility maximizer, in this case, plays an imperative role to in evaluating and determining the migration decisions (Trymaine, 2011). The theory thus gives an insight into the reason as to why exploitation of employees takes place. As stated in the theory, "workers are exploited by being cheated out of value that should rightly belong to them."
Neoclassical theory is applied in many countries of the world such as the United States. Through the theory, a framework of an argument for wealth distribution can be clearly laid down. According to the theory, it is clear that wealth is as a result of individual's personal decision contrary to coercion, colonization, and theft. The theory argues further that wealth is made through individual's hard work while poverty is due to laziness and profligacy. Relating this to migration, it is clear that movement of people from one place to another for settlement is due to the personal decision.
Social network and world system theories
Understanding how the other people living on the other sides lives describes the theory. In this case, an individual is aware of activities of immigration that is taking place in the new settlement place. Fears of exploitations are less in an individual hence motivated to migrate. It is possible in this scenario due to the proper preview of the larger system in general.
On the other hand, world system theory asserts the presence of benefit and exploitation between nations. Due to this disparities, migration is created as the exploited society try to search for more freedom and justice (Kupiszewski, 2013). On the other side, those believed to benefit are ready to welcome the exploited ones in the name of salvaging them.
Conclusion
Migration theories have played a great role in trying to analyze the migration trends, economic status and possible reasons towards movement of people. The theories serves as fundamental tools for future forecast of current issues about migration and settlement inclusive of contribution of migration on economy, social and political lives.

References
Antin, M. (2012). The Promised Land.
Barbara, C. B. (2016). African American. Retrieved from http://www.everyculture.com/multi/A-Br/African-Americans.html
Bijak, J. (2011). Forecasting international migration in Europe: A Bayesian view. Dordrecht: Springer.
Coombs, N. (2013). The Black Experience in America. Lanham: Start Classics.
In Acosta, A. D., & In Wiesbrock, A. (2015). Global migration: Old assumptions, new dynamics.
Joshua, J. M. (2009). Fertile Crescent. Retrieved from http://www.ancient.eu/Fertile_Crescent/
Ken, S. (2011). The Immigration Debate: How to Confuse a Conflict Theorist. Retrieved from http://backyardsociologyfall2011.blogspot.co.ke/2011/11/immigration-debate-how-to-confuse.html
Kupiszewski, M. (2013). International migration and the future of populations and labor force resources in Europe. Dordrecht: Springer.
Tara, Z. (2015). America, the not so Promised Land. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/15/opinion/sunday/america-the-not-so-promised-land.html
Trymaine, L. (2011). Chicago's Great Migration: Blacks Leaving Historic Neighborhoods To Return South. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/10/16/blacks-south-return_n_1014381.html

 

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