Forced Migration and Global Politics - Book Critique 

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Forced Migration and Global Politics

The book seeks to answer the following questions. The question being asked is what do the global politics issues contribute to the understanding of the forced migration problem in the world. The second question is what and how this issue of forced migration add more pressure to the international debate within global politics and the issues facing the refugees.
The humanitarian principle recognizes that everyone has a particular obligations and ethical commitments towards those in need. There is a range of viewpoints that can be advanced to support this thesis. Refugees are the most affected due to forced migration effects and are in need of help without causing more harm to them. Refugee protection is not important just for global stability, it is also more crucial for humanitarian reasons. When governments fail in their obligation to protect the fundamental rights of their own citizens, they are forced to escape those countries, whether permanently or temporarily. It is therefore the obligation of every state to protect its people from such issues. This paper tries to analyze the issues, refugees go through in relation to forced migration and how global politics and international institutions responds to such problems.
Forced migration and the global politics book has 200 pages and is organized into the following stages; the social, political, economic, environmental and human rights dimensions. The book is well arranged and critically outline the main resettlement and displacement processes through identifying the main actors and differentiate the social, political, economic, environmental and human rights dimensions of these processes. It critically analyzes the links between global politics and development. It provides a general idea of the global refugee regime, including an introduction to core instruments and organization. It helps individuals understand the relationships between politics within countries and relationships between countries and the main resettlement and displacement domains.
The main objectives of the book include;
To understand why refugees need protection
Betts knowledge about forced migration is that, those victims need protection both from the destination countries and the United Nations body or humanitarian organizations. However, little has been done to help them settle and be like other normal people. It is imperative to identify the ethical grounds for refugees protection commitment. It is also important, nonetheless, to recognize that there can be a diverse set of reasons to commit to refugee protection, including obligation, values and interests.
To be able to understand the main objective of Betts argument, the book is structured around the main themes within the forced migration and global politics literature. The main objective is to engage in the debate more critically and systematically and examine the relationship between important debates and particular aspects of forced migration and international relations. In addition Bett addresses refugees problems as a result of forced migrations and political instabilities in the affected countries and communities. The book is structured around key objectives that include: gender; globalization; international organizations and global governance; security; regionalism and sovereignty and the state system.
The main argument that Bett addresses in his book are the common issues that face the helpless people who are forced to migrated illegally and suffer the consequences of global politics. Provide people with a basis for developing critical insight into the issue of forced migration, and reflect on its theoretical contributions to the study of International Relations, with a special focal point on humanitarian action and human security; Understand the institutional response to forced migration and how practice has developed and continues to evolve; Understand the field of forced migration and understand the link between theory and policy issues in forced migration. In addition, Forced Migration and Global Politics adopts a groundbreaking approach to offer important insights to an issue of ever-increasing complexity and importance in today's world. It significantly examines the applicability of concepts and theories from global Relations for the study of the international politics of forced migration (Betts, & Loescher, 2011).
To understand how to protect the refugees
The question of how to protect the refugees is a big one and leaves many wonders which criteria is the best to ensure stability and comfort of those affected. Betts critically examines the International Relations for the study of the international politics of forced migration. Bett, the author responds to the forced migration issue by pointing out that refugee movement have been seriously politicized leaving many people helpless and nothing much is done to impose necessary discipline to solve the problem. Alexander closes the gap between international relations and forced migration studies by giving a strong analysis and opinions to help countries understand the depth of the issue and find means of helping those affected without taking advantage of their conditions.
However, some of his ideas and critics are not convincing considering the state that developing countries find themselves in, especially when the idea of resources is something that has for many years reduced the level of development and political stability among developing nations. It is true that structural adjustment policies has led to competition for resources in the developing countries as claimed by Alexander Bett, but to some extent, the view might not be that convincing because developing countries have their own problems such as extreme poverty that leads to well-able countries taking advantage and practicing neo-colonialism. Developing countries have failed to help the refugees due to their high demands and because that high level of poverty forces them to close ranks to their own community. Betts argues that, there is some evidence to suggest that when industrialized states close their borders and instead seek to support refugees in their first country of asylum in the developing world, those developing countries become increasingly unwilling to continue to host refugees. (McDowell, 2010).
Structural adjustment policies were introduced to help developing countries share resources and help the refugees. However, the negative impacts of the program which was meant to solve problems has done more harm than good. The structural adjustment policies negative effects have been far more significant than the effects of misdirection of resources under World Bank initiatives and International Monetary Fund programs. Bett does not address the other side of these developed countries’ programs’ effects other than their benefits. They have been of goos help so to say, but the challenges that have accompanied these so called benefits are huge to address. In his analysis, Bett notes that the developing world takes in many more refugees than the developed world. The truth of the matter is that these countries invest a lot to ensure the affected refugees are offered a better life to help them recover from the trauma experienced in their motherland, however, Bett could have been more straightforward and explained honestly, how the developed countries have become selfish, despite its resources and many helpful programs (Betts, & Loescher, 2011).
To understand what rights should be granted refugees
In developed countries, there are disputes about the rights and protections refugees should receive. For instance, the resettling of refugees in such countries is very costly because refugees are entitled to generous social security benefits. Simultaneously, as many countries around the globe struggle to meet the needs of their own people, the level of rights and entitlements that refugees should receive is not a simple issue to decide, especially if and when there is competition for resources with citizens of the host state.
In addressing globalization and migration, Bett suggests that they have been politicized by the western countries and that most asylum seekers are secret economic migrants. Much as many will agree with his opinion and analysis about the issue, the truth remains that there are other asylum seekers who are honest despite being criticized. Most of the asylum seekers are honest and genuinely fleeing from persecution and hard conditions they experience in their own countries.
To understand the future of the refugee regime
The refugee regime is at a defining moment and as immigration and asylum have become more politicized, so too has the protection space available to refugees diminished according to Betts, The issues of who, how and why to protect refugees pose a series of challenges that can only be addressed by identifying the dynamic nature of refugee protection today and the days to come. Some of the institutions like UNHCR roles have dramatically changed since their creation. Such institutions protect not only the refugees, but also the victims of natural disaster and the internally displaced persons. The question remains if these institutions with the help of the government and other stakeholders will remain faithful in ensuring the safety of the refugees and the general issues of forced migration and global politics as far as human rights are concerned. According to Betts, The answers to these crucial questions will shape the future of the global refugee regime.

Bett analysis shows how the behavior of the developed countries impacts of forced immigration, but he needed to expound more and explain some burning issues that have not been openly addressed. Bett should have given more credit to those developing countries that have for many years demonstrated enormous positive response to the international problem of accommodating internally displaced individuals and refugees. This could have added more weight in his book and many people could have benefited more in his study. However, Bett work is very important and it is a very innovative academic work for those less conversant about immigration issues and challenges and how Western countries have handled refugees. Forced Migration and Global Politics adopt a revolutionary approach to offer important insights to an issue of increasing complexity and importance in today's world. Bett has also helped people to understand thematic analysis of debates related to forced migration, including asylum challenges, humanitarian action protection and long-lasting solutions, mixed flows, and the UNHCR mandate. And consider its theoretical contributions to the study of International Relations, with a special focus on humanitarian action and human security (Martin, 2015).

Betts examines the issues of security and sovereignty in trying to critique the behavior of the powerful countries in shaping the question of forced migration. His approach to the question is that the question of human rights and sovereignty stand in contradiction to each other. Sovereignty means that they have authority within their boundaries to do what is expected and human rights mean that they have a responsibility towards their people and ensure their rights are never violated in whatever means.
The book was written in 2009 and it is very important at such a time due to many issues facing the migrants and refugee camps. One would argue about its irrelevance, however, Betts analysis on the issues of forced migration and global politics in relation to how the refugees are handled is a major topic of more concern and a question to be handled carefully. The theory is relevant and will help in solving the situations not only on matters of migrations, but on issues of positive relations among nations without undermining other states on the basis of resources or poverty.
The author has extensively tried to answer all the questions in his reflection about the issues facing forced migration and global politics, which are major concern not only to the affected individuals, but also to the countries in which they find refuge. He has expressed his views that the responsibility of ensuring all refugees are protected is upon every individual and no just one body. In examining and learning from Betts analysis, it will Provide people with a space to consider, and give importance to the refugee experience, and to critically engage with those affected. It will help in analyzing different conceptual approaches to forced migration and displacement. Think critically about operational practices and policies relating to forced migration and displacement and recognize political issues relating to displacement and understand the responses in the form of, repatriation, resettlement and humanitarian assistance. The context addresses all questions related to forced migration issues and tries to offer solutions. International bodies and policy makers should address forced migration and global politics to help settle the challenges developing states face as a result of forced migration.
Betts views in this book are direct and requires urgent reactions for a better world where every individual rights are respected. This is reflected when he says that, refugee protection is not important just for global stability, it is also more crucial for humanitarian reasons. When governments fail in their obligation to protect the fundamental rights of their own citizens, they are forced to escape those countries, whether permanently or temporarily. It is therefore the obligation of every state to protect its people from such issues.

Alexander, B. (2009) Forced Migration and Global Politics, London: Wiley Blackwel
Betts, A. & Loescher, G. (2011) Refugees in International Relations, Oxford: Oxford University Press
Martin, S. (2015) The Uprooted: Improving Humanitarian Responses to Forced Migration, Lexington
McDowell, C. (2010) Non-Conflict Displacement: Challenges for the 21st Century, London, Providence RI: Berghahn Publishers.

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