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The Closing of the American Borders - Migration and Security Issues  

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Migration for the past decades has become a subject of consideration due to many people who migrate with different reasons. In 2015, around 245 million people of the world's population, migrated to other parts of the world leaving their country. The majority of migrants crosses borders in search of better social and economic opportunities while Others are forced to flee crises. Internal migration within countries due to internal conflicts is also on the rise, leading to Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) camps. Migration as a security issue is contested and complex. Those who argue about it and consider it a security concern, debate the level and nature of threats it poses domestically and internationally, and what or who is threatened. Nevertheless, depending on one’s ontological position it is debatable whether it should be well thought-out as a security issue at all. Possibly, if migration was not branded as a security threat, we could have more honest, less alarmist and balanced public debate about it. The closing of the American borders is a book written by Edward Alden on issues of immigration, security and terrorism.
The book seeks to answer the following questions: whether the security policies are helping the victims of migration of not; whether there are border migration policies to help reduce the negative effects of migration and whether the developed countries such as America is doing anything to protect the victims of migration or they are part of the nations that have violated human rights.

The main objectives of the book are: according to Edward Alden are mainly focusing on security and migration rights. His objective is to show how the American administration failed to balance between openness and security even after the September 2001 attack; to examine the scenes of the internal struggles over policy making and examines the impact of those policy; to asses the price America has paid for making it progressively hard for others to migrate or travel, live and work within their borders and to criticize the measures or policy implemented as to predict the coming generation by offering genuine advice and opinions relating to security and migration.
The Closing of the American Border: Terrorism book has 368 pages and is organized into different chapters; it reflects on the America effort in dealing with the issues of migration and terrorism as far as security is concerned, the implications of those policies domestically and internationally; border security issues of migration and internal security. His recommendations about what need to be done as far as migration and security is concerned and the future of America as a superpower nation and the world at large. The struggles between the technocrats and the Cops measures of curbing security challenges (Woodrow, 2014).
Central thesis
The author argues that the migration policies enacted by the United States government after the September 2001 terrorist attack removes the United States from the rest of the nations and this has led to serious diplomatic and economic consequences. His argument is based on the question of whether there is security and the impact of migration as far as human rights and their security are concerned (Martin, 2012).
The main objectives of the book include;
To understand Security ignorance
The Closing of the American Border: Terrorism, Immigration, and Security book extensively and analytically tells the story of the United States administration's efforts to balance openness and security in the wake of the September 2001 attacks. Based on the extensive interviews with the American state officials, as well as foreign state representatives, business executives and different professors, this book goes behind the views of the domestic struggles over policy making, and study the actual world effects of those policy decisions.
The book is a good reflection of what has happened and still happens in matters of security and migration in relation to human safety. Alden says that the current condition of the United States border security system is a clear reflection of a neglected effort to manage its borders prior to the 2001 September terrorist attack and twisted efforts to patch programs and execute new ones to help deal with the emerging challenges and issues related to security and migration. He explains what is likely to happen to any government that does not have a clear vision for the future of its nation and people. His argument reflects the tensions between initiatives to implement counterterrorism policies and enforce immigration laws to every diverse effort that need to be separated. It reveals a government that to a great extent needs to come to some decision about the kind of border security system that is needed to help it manage the overall damaging risks to the country’s security and shows what can happen if it does not have a vision for the future. Additionally, his argument shows how the government may make it harder for terrorists to enter its borders and at the same time make it harder for everyone else as well (Portes, 2012).
To understand Border security
In his writing, Alden has extensively talked about issues pertaining to border security as far as migration is concerned and the national security through interviews with immigrants that have fallen victim to at times dysfunctional and an imperfect system, and in addition talks with the senior government officials. He adequately merges together debates among the government departments, homeland security and justice on how to secure the borders, use immigration law to counter terrorists and how to effect visa policy. The book goes on to expose shortcomings in the enforcement efforts of the Naturalization Service and the old Immigration, and highlights the relationship between Canada and the United States and Mexico and the united States on trade and border control. Alden’s book is the first book since the book commissioned in the September 2001 terrorist attack which tried to examine at length the set of problems and issues confronting border security. From his perception about dealing with the security challenges, the lessons learnt during the attack were not enough to help in confronting such challenges as far as migration and security matters are concerned. The author achieves the set targets in explaining that it is not about examining the problems or loopholes alone, but going ahead to fill such gaps would be the most appropriate means of handling security challenges. That is what Alden is trying to achieve Portes, A. (2012).
To understand the struggles between the Technocrats and the Cops
In this topic, the author tries to achieve his target of resolving the security issues through examining the struggles between the technocrats and the Cops measures of curbing security challenges. Alden says that the technocrats are those groups that supports taking a risk management approach to border security, adhering to the rule of law and to constitutional principles, and the appropriate use of intelligence, information and technology for security purposes so that controls or restrictions do not hinder the free flow of people and commerce. To execute this program, this issue was dealt with Tom Ridge, the first secretary of homeland security and also the first assistant to the president for homeland security. Another person included was Robert Bonner, former Customs and Border Protection Commissioner and Admiral James Loy, who was the former assistant secretary of homeland security (Borjas, 2011).
On the other side of the debate, Alden discusses the other group called the Cops. They are those who support the use of laws and regulations to head automatically off any terrorist attacks. They include John Ashcroft, the former Attorney General, who advocated for the aggressive use of immigration rules and laws. For Ashcroft, If a terrorism suspect committed any legal infraction at all, regardless how minor, we would apprehend and charge him. Ashcroft and others interpreted immigration rules not as a constitutional protection, but as a regulation or law that allowed or pushed the government to charge someone suspected of an immigration violation and detain such person without charge almost indefinitely without bond. They believed detentions would help to prevent further attacks, help to intimidate a detainee into cooperating with the government, or cause a disruption in terrorist plans.
In trying to deal with the security issues and migration, Alden serves as the best author who critically and correctly gives his views confidently. However, he does not mention the political aspect of the country, where it serves as a hindrance to many policies, especially in the United States where democracy is a big problem. Many countries where politics plays a big role in matters of national security remain a big challenge in addressing it. This is where Alden failed as a good author. Alden continues to point out that the Department of Homeland Security concedes that most of its counterterrorism funds are being poured into controlling and securing and the border with Mexico and makes a persuasive case that immigration counterterrorism and enforcement and are two different things, and for either to be effective they need to be separated (Borjas, 2011).
Alden's book concludes that, while there can be no doubt that the United States border policy before September 2001 was at times lax to a point of being naïve, changes immediately after that attack heavily did more harm than good. It analyzes the complicated interplay between the America' need for economic openness, homeland security, and the strategic and social benefits of creating and maintaining a welcoming society. Also, it recommends a greater focus on the development of effective border security measures that work as hard to invite in real people as they do to keep out bad ones.
This book is highly recommended for every individual who want to know more about migration and security issues affecting our current generation. Its advantages are many and if countries take into consideration some of his arguments and advice as far as migration and national security is concerned, then, the world would be a better place to live and enjoy the freedom that our countries long for many years (Borjas, 2011).
Conclusions
Although the author gives full analysis and explains many aspects about security and migration, he offers limited conclusions on the need to create a clear vision for the border security. Alden speaks about the attempt by Richard Falkenrath and Tom Ridge, former assistant homeland security advisor to the president, to draft a vision for the future, which was named as the Border of the Future. The vision that embraced a risk-based decision-making approach distinguished between low-risk and high-risk traffic based on intelligence, cooperation with other governments in developing intelligence information, standards and procedures, managed and organized to get in front-line inspectors promptly, and constant threat assessments.
Alden shows that that vision was rejected and criticized and by the Cabinet. However, as the most powerful man, this is where the president should have taken command and a leadership responsibility to push his administration and government officials to think through a border security plan rather than just unsystematically realigning all of the appropriate law enforcement agencies and the border security and into the Department of Homeland Security with roles for disaster planning and response, protecting the president through the Secret Service and other missions. Alden’s book should be required reading for the United States presidential candidates and those in the long run charged with executing the border security enterprise. Alden's book shows what happened without a common vision. The book can show the next president and his team that they have an opportunity to learn from history and craft a common vision.
For those people who love dynamic to organizational change, follow bureaucratic politics, migration and visa policy history, immigrant experiences and ordinary individuals hoping to work or travel in the United States, Alden Edward’s book will definitely not disappoint. His debate about the issue is just overwhelming, his thorough ability and interviews to create a broad mosaic from those interviews is mysterious. The Closing of the American Border’s book is a good reflection a outstanding text for policy makers who must always rise to the occasions and wrestle with the immigration policy and border security challenges (Lohrmann, 2010).
The book is a good reflection of what happens when good people fail to act during a crisis. The author could have posed serious questions about respecting policies set and how to adhere to all of them. Failure to deal with the leadership loopholes where integrity and transparency matters is where Aldens book leaves some questions to answer. For future references, a strong measure must be taken to avoid leadership failures and policy ignorance.







Term Paper on Migration and Security
Immigration and its impact on national security
Immigration has been seen as a threat to the national security, especially the United States of America. Some of the threats include; the link between the immigrants and the terrorists, increased crime, destroying the sense of nationhood and threats to national language and culture. The traditional approach to international security has focused primarily on military concerns. The views of migration as a threat to security issues has developed alongside the rapid increase in the number of immigrants worldwide. Many have argued that security studies should not only center on the military sector, but should be further developed to cover environmental, societal, political and economic security. The question to be asked in this context is why people migrate and what are the dangers of such moves in relation to domestic and international security as far as human safety is concerned (Adamson, 2012).
Since security is no longer associated with pure military force, new risks threaten the typical functions or stability of states. Dealing with these security threats often demands processes of cooperation with other people, so as to avoid unwanted and unexpected outcomes. Patterns of regional cooperation, in this case, are mushrooming, envisioned to tackle problems likely to impact in a similar way to actors lying close. Moreover, as far as regional solutions appear to be sound to cope with risks and to coordinate responses within a defined cluster it would be normal to observe patterns of cooperation encompassing more local units facing global or intra-regional threats. Thus, multilateral and multilevel solutions would promise an easy management of the challenges (Lohrmann, 2010).
This paper seeks to answer the following questions; to evaluate why people migrate and to examine how the European Union deals with migration as a security subject; to review the complete range of social, political and economic migration theory and to show their differences and how immigration acts as a threat to internal security.
Central thesis
Immigration is a sensitive issue and is often associated with negative implications such as security threats, unemployment, and welfare abuse. Illegal immigration is a threatening force in America and a national security issue of the highest order, which not only affect America as a country alone, but also the entire world. This paper is a reflection on immigration issues such as security threats and other outcomes of such issues such as displacement, unemployment and internal conflicts. Another issue affecting immigrants is the issue of internal politics and lack of policies to deal with the migration challenges.
The paper is organized into three stages, each dealing with different issues related to immigration challenges. It has a clear theoretical manner that gives the reader an easy way of understanding what is all about the causes of migration and the security challenges it brings to the receiving countries. Other than security issues, other factors such as population, employment, culture and religion perspective.
The main objectives of the paper include;
To understand how Immigration acts a threat to Internal Security
In addition to economic and societal security, internal security has also emerged as an aspect of security which is threatened by immigration. The idea of immigration as a threat to internal security has been there for decades. For many years now, governments have made tighter immigration policies, connecting immigration with terrorist activities. The author argues that Immigration has, and will continue to have, a critical economic impact on both the country of origin and the receiving country. While immigration has economic benefits and disadvantages, the expansion of the definition of security to encompass the economic sector has brought increased attention to the economic challenges caused by immigration,which has been labeled as a security issue. It is economic migrants as well as asylum seekers and refugees that are perceived to threaten the economic security of a state (Borjas, 2011).
It has also been argued that immigrants, especially asylum seekers and refugees, are threats to the receiving state’s welfare system and social security. From this perspective, immigration is seen as a problem rather than an opportunity. Refugees and asylum seekers are presented as freeloaders and profiteers who illegitimately exploit the host state’s welfare system, because the system is presented as unable to sustain an influx of immigrants. Immigrants are portrayed to be so poor and numerous that they pose a huge economic threat to the state, and straining education, communication, sanitation, and transportation services and creating housing shortages. The provision of welfare state services to migrant workers and refugees often spawns resentment from within the citizens. There is a strong belief that immigrants don’t only take jobs away from native citizens, but that they also take away social benefits (Borjas, 2011).
The topic is very important, especially to the current generation where economic and social aspects of individuals are threatened by the high level of immigration. In addition, due to political instability of many countries, this topic act a powerful reminder on what to expect and do in different circumstances.
To understand the challenges immigrants face
Immigrants face many challenges, some of these challenges are difficult to solve, but others can be solved when right measures are taken. Immigrants always hope that where they escape, they will find good life and many opportunities, however, they often face difficulties they never imagined. Many of this refugees and immigrants have endured significant challenges and hardships in their local countries, including war trauma, extreme poverty, rape and persecution Briggs, V. (2012)
For immigrant parents, the issues they face can be even more daunting. Most of those parents who arrive in new communities are confronted with immediate hardships and challenges to their survival, including; finding a place to live, securing a job, enrolling their children in school and buying food, and. These challenges to some extend forces them to engage in criminal activities to enable them to provide for their families. Most of the terrorists have made contact with the refugees and immigrants to attack countries such as America and other developed nations not to forget the developing ones like Kenya, where terrorists have always used refugees from Somalia to attack and kill many innocent Kenyans. A big priority for immigrants moving to a new country is to secure housing. Language barriers can be a big part of the challenge for immigrants, but the lack of local awareness or how the housing market works in the new country can also present huge problems. For those who completely fail to get genuine help end up being mistreated and tortured with little pay in industries Briggs, V. (2012) .
To promote and encourage policies that protects the immigrants
According to the Executive director for the immigrants studies center, he says that, the issues of immigration are not criminal matters, but they are administrative matters. There is no punishment that the immigration service meets, but it is just a matter of a simple question of whether you belong here or there. Understanding the issues facing the immigrants and the neoclassical theory that explains their reasons for escaping for economic reasons and others, will help resolve some of the challenges immigrants face (Terrazas & Batalova, 2011).

Every immigrant, irrespective of his or her legal status, have human rights. While governments have the right and obligation to regulate the entry and stay of non-citizens in their country, they can only do so within the limits of their human rights laws and obligations. All governments must ensure that its policies, practices and laws do not place immigrants at an increased risk of human rights abuses. A human rights approach to migration places the migrant at the center of migration policies and pays particular attention to the situation of the disadvantaged groups of migrants. Such systems will ensure that migrants participate in national action plans and strategies, such as plans for the provision of public housing or national strategies to combat xenophobia and racism (Terrazas & Batalova, 2011).
Conclusion
Immigration is a sensitive issue and is often associated with negative implications such as security threats, unemployment, and welfare abuse. The paper has extensively achieved its aim in dealing with the issues immigrants go through while trying to secure o good living standards away from their countries. And the surety concern that emerges from such groups. The author main aim is to let countries understand their responsibilities as far as immigrants hardships are concerned. Despite the oppositions faced by the strong political measures, there are policies that help immigrants find good life and help their families. In addition, human rights should be in the forefront dealing with the challenges of immigrants. There should be proper measures in ensuring nothing comes in between the policies and rights that protects the immigrants and security policies that prevents any attacks.
 

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